A term which is used to define the study of past climates. Since, studying of past climate by going back to time is not possible, scientists and researchers have used indentations to study the past climate known as intermediaries such as animals, corals and the sediments. Data collected from the intermediaries interpret with the modern climate and incorporated in a climate model to predict the future climatic conditions. Foraminifera, a common name used to describe diatoms and forams which serves as the main precursor of detecting past climatic conditions by the sedimentary content of the shells of diatoms and forams. Other proxies, that are mainly used to study the past climatic condition also includes the thickness of the tree rings, sedimented cores, ice core records and by the variations in marine organisms. In the pal-Eocene age that is 55.5 million years ago, the earth seems to be 8o warmer than today in which there is larger amount of CO2 was found.


  • Track 1-1 Dendroclimatology
  • Track 2-2 Sedimentary Content
  • Track 3-3 Sclerochronology
  • Track 4-4 Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

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